The university is subject to Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; Sections 503 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended; the Age Discrimination in Employment Act; the Equal Pay Act; the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974; Federal Executive Order 11246; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA); Virginia's State Executive Order Number One; and all other applicable rules and regulations.
In a sense, substantive equality of opportunity moves the "starting point" further back in time. Sometimes it entails the use of affirmative action policies to help all contenders become equal before they get to the starting point, perhaps with greater training, or sometimes redistributing resources via restitution or taxation to make the contenders more equal. It holds that all who have a "genuine opportunity to become qualified" be given a chance to do so. And it is sometimes based on a recognition that unfairness exists, hindering social mobility , combined with a sense that the unfairness should not exist or should be lessened in some manner.  One example postulated was that a warrior society could provide special nutritional supplements to poor children, offer scholarships to military academies, and dispatch "warrior skills coaches" to every village as a way to make opportunity substantively more fair.  The idea is to give every ambitious and talented youth a chance to compete for prize positions regardless of their circumstances of birth.